Frequently Asked Questions


About Cord Blood and Haematopoietic (Blood) Stem Cells
1. What is cord blood?
2. What are blood stem cells?
3. How do cord blood stem cells differ from those harvested from bone marrow?
4. How are cord blood and blood stem cells used to save lives?
5. Why is a twin pregnancy not suitable for cord blood donation?
6. Can all donated umbilical cord blood be stored for future usage?

Options for Storing Umbilical Cord Blood
7. What are my options for storing umbilical cord blood?
8. What is the difference between a public and private cord blood bank?
9. Should I store my child’s cord blood in a private bank or donate it for public use?
10. When and how is cord blood collected for storage?
11. How long can cord blood be stored?

Donating Umbilical Cord Blood
12. Why should parents donate their baby’s cord blood to a public cord blood bank?
13. Are there any benefits if I donate my cord blood to SCBB?
14. Are there any risks to donating cord blood?
15. Where can I donate my baby’s cord blood?
16. How do I know if I am eligible to donate my baby’s umbilical cord blood?
17. When should I notify SCBB about donating my baby’s umbilical cord blood?
18. Can I notify SCBB before my 32nd week of gestation?
19. I wish to donate my baby’s cord blood but do not wish to have my blood taken?
20. Why is the mother’s blood collected? How much is collected?
21. What do I do if I want to donate my baby’s cord blood to SCBB?
22. What are the procedures and processes undertaken to facilitate the donation?
23. What is the Consent Process?
24. Can I donate if I am unable to complete the Maternal Risk Questionnaire?
25. Is cord blood donation confidential?
26. Will any of my information be released?
27. What should I do if I decide to donate my cord blood after delivery?
28. Can cord blood be collected during a Caesarean section?
29. Will the cord blood be collected if there are any complications during the delivery process?
30. Are there any costs to donate my baby’s cord blood to SCBB?
31. Can I store half of my baby’s umbilical cord blood in a public bank and the other half in a private bank?
32. Can I choose not to participate in the research should my donated cord blood unit not be stored?

What Happens after Donation
33. What happens to the donated umbilical cord blood?
34. Will I be informed if my baby’s cord blood is released for transplant?
35. Can I transfer a stored umbilical cord blood bank from a private bank to the public bank?

About the SCBB
36. What is SCBB’s mission?
37. Why is there a need for a public cord blood bank?
38. Is SCBB affiliated to any other registries or international cord blood banks?
39. Are the hospitals, delivery suite staff and doctors paid for the collection of cord blood unit?

Access to Units stored at SCBB
40. Who can use the donated umbilical cord blood?
41. Do I have priority if I donate my cord blood after delivery?
42. Are the cord blood units stored at SCBB available for overseas transplants?
43. What happens if my child or family member needs the umbilical cord blood for transplant? Can I have access to the unit which was donated?
44. What is the chance of the donor’s parents matching the donor’s own cord blood unit?
45. What if my child needs the donated cord blood unit?
46. Can families send in a request to SCBB to search their registry for a match?
47. Have there been any searches for a cord blood unit?
48. How much must I pay for the cord blood if there's a search?
49. If the mother has donated cord blood and it was successfully stored in SCBB, will a fee be imposed if the cord blood is needed for a transplant to help the baby or baby's sibling?
50. If any patient wants a cord blood unit from your registry and has not donated or their donated cord blood unit is not available, how much does it cost to procure a unit?
51. How are cord blood units matched?
52. How does a patient receive a cord blood transplant?


About Cord Blood and Haematopoietic (Blood) Stem Cells

1. What is cord blood?
Cord blood is the blood that remains in the umbilical cord and in the placenta after child birth. The umbilical cord and the placenta together with the blood in it, is usually discarded after the baby has been delivered. The blood in the umbilical cord is found to be a rich source of blood stem cells, which are also known as “haematopoietic” stem cells. These stem cells have been successfully used in the treatment of blood related cancers, immune and genetic diseases.
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2. What are blood stem cells?
Stem cells are the primitive cells found in various tissues of the body that can differentiate into the specific functional cells of various tissues. They are the source of tissue renewal, repair and growth. Blood stem cells, or “haematopoietic” stem cells, are those that produce the steady stream of blood cells, such as white, red cells and platelets that will keep the body healthy. The source of blood stem cells are bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood.
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3. How do cord blood stem cells differ from those harvested from bone marrow?
Stem cells harvested from the umbilical cord blood are the earliest source of stem cells available and is at the most naïve state. It is able to accept a higher level of mismatch due to this naivety compared to adult stem cells harvested from mobilized peripheral blood or the bone marrow. The benefits of using umbilical cord blood stem cells include:-
  • Lower risk of Graft-vs-Host Disease
  • Easier to search for a match as tissue typing is done once the CBU is banked.
  • Immediate availability when required.
  • Cord blood collection is safe and painless with minimal risk to the mother and baby.
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4. How are cord blood and blood stem cells used to save lives?
Blood stem cells can be used to treat diseases such as leukaemia, lymphoma and other blood disorders, as well as immune deficiencies and metabolic diseases. A list of indications, which can be treated by cord blood transplants, can be found at http://cordbloodforum.com/images/pdf/cbt_indications.pdf. The stem cells from the cord blood are transfused into the patient by the Transplant Physician as part of the treatment.
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5. Why is a twin pregnancy not suitable for cord blood donation?
The Singapore Cord Blood Bank (SCBB) is not able to accept a cord blood donation from a donor with twin or multiple pregnancies as it is considered a high-risk pregnancy. SCBB advocates that the safety of the mother and baby is/are of utmost importance. Further, there could be a possibility of mixing or confusing the tissue types of the two umbilical cords. As the tissue types are used to match a cord blood unit (CBU) to a patient, any potential mix-up in the tissue types would not be favorable for the immune-compromised patient receiving the cord blood unit to survive.
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6. Can all donated umbilical cord blood be stored for future usage?
SCBB adheres to international public cord blood banking guidelines for Unrelated Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants (HSCT). As an affiliate member bank of the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) in the US, the SCBB follows FDA guidelines and stringent public cord blood banking criteria, thus, not all donated umbilical cord blood can be stored at the SCBB. In order to meet international requirement for a life-saving cord blood transplant, all collected CBUs will be evaluated for volume of blood, cell count, cell viability, and infectious disease amongst other panel of testing requirements. These will ensure only samples of the highest quality are banked and made available to patients in need of cord blood stem cells for cord blood transplant procedures. Suitable samples will then be prepared for storage at -180° Celsius, in cryogenic tanks, until they are required for HSCT. When CBUs do not meet the banking requirements, it may be assigned for approved research. In cases where the maternal donor has indicated that she does not want the cord blood unit for research, it will be discarded according to normal hospital protocols.
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Options for Storing Umbilical Cord Blood

7. What are my options for storing umbilical cord blood?
Umbilical cord blood can be donated to the public cord blood bank or stored at a private cord blood bank. At present, there is one public cord blood bank, Singapore Cord Blood Bank, and three private banks in Singapore.
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8. What is the difference between a public and private cord blood bank?
Public cord blood banks, such as the Singapore Cord Blood Bank, fulfil a social mission by collecting donated umbilical cord blood (UCB) from expectant mothers after the safe delivery of their babies. The donated UCBs of the highest quality will be evaluated, processed, cryopreserved and stored in a constantly monitored cryopreservation tank until it is searched, matched and distributed for a patient in need of a Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) also known as Blood-forming Stem Cell Transplant. Expectant parents that decide to donate their baby’s umbilical cord blood will be required to go through an Informed Consent and to complete a stringent Maternal Risk Questionnaire before delivery. Parents are not charged for the collection of donated UCB. These donated UCBs to SCBB are available for any patient that requires a stem cell unit for HSCT in Singapore or around the world.

Private cord blood banks also known as family banks; parents pay a fee for up to 21 years to store the UCB only intended for the family’s own personal use. The UCB is only accessible to the family.
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9. Should I store my child’s cord blood in a private bank or donate it for public use?
Public and private cord blood banks provide an important service to the individuals who chose to store their baby’s umbilical cord blood. The donation of cord blood or storage of the baby’s cord blood for private use is a personal decision that only the parents can make. It is important to explore and understand the difference between the cord blood banks before making a decision. With proper and objective information, it is up to the parents, to determine the best option that satisfies their needs and expectations.
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10. When and how is cord blood collected for storage?
The umbilical cord blood is collected after the baby is delivered and the cord has been clamped and cut by the obstetrician. The cord blood is collected from the umbilicus vein from the section of the cord that remains attached to the placenta.
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11. How long can cord blood be stored?
Studies have shown good cord blood cell recovery after up to 18 years of storage. The cell viability and functionality beyond this period has not been evaluated, but the scientific community will continue to monitor the situation and collect data to ascertain the maximum shelf-life of a stored cryopreserved cord blood unit.
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Donating Umbilical Cord Blood

12. Why should parents donate their baby’s cord blood to a public cord blood bank?
Umbilical cord blood is rich in life-saving stem cells, as described above. Rather than discard it after delivery, which is done frequently, you can donate it to give someone a chance at a cure.

Donating cord blood to a centralised public cord blood bank such as the SCBB increases the number of cord blood units available to all potential stem cell transplant patients. This therefore increases the chances of finding a match for the patient.

Donation is even more urgent when we know that ethnicity plays an important role in finding a stem cell match. The donation of umbilical cord blood units that matches the ethnicity of the population is critical in helping to save lives of needy patients.

Since the first unrelated umbilical cord blood transplant in 1993, over 30,000 cord blood transplants have been performed around the world as of 2012. These patients received unrelated cord blood units that were generously donated to a public cord blood bank.
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13. Are there any benefits if I donate my cord blood to SCBB?
The benefit of cord blood donation is having the satisfaction of knowing that someone else’s life could be saved using the donated cord blood unit.
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14. Are there any risks to donating cord blood?
Cord blood donation is medically safe. The process poses minimal health risks to the mother or baby. The birth experience will also not be affected as the cord blood is only collected after the safe delivery of your baby. The blood is collected from the umbilicus vein from the section of the cord that remains attached to the placenta, not the baby. The safety and well being of both mother and baby will always be of primary importance.
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15. Where can I donate my baby’s cord blood?
Ten delivering hospitals, both restructured and private, in Singapore are participating in our cord blood donation programme.

These are the restructured hospitals:
  • KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital (KKH)
  • National University Hospital (NUH)
  • Singapore General Hospital (SGH)
The private hospitals include:
  • Gleneagles Hospital (GEH)
  • Mount Alvernia Hospital (MAH)
  • Mount Elizabeth Novena Hospital (MNH)
  • Mount Elizabeth Orchard Hospital (MEH)
  • Raffles Hospital (RH)
  • Parkway East Hospital (PEH) formerly known as East Shore Hospital
  • Thomson Medical Centre (TMC)
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16. How do I know if I am eligible to donate my baby’s umbilical cord blood?
The criteria for donors can be summarised as follows:
  • Donors should be fit to donate blood by international criteria of blood banks.
  • Donors should not have any infectious diseases, which could be transmitted, or are at risk of transmitting any form of infectious diseases by donation.
  • Donors should not have any genetic disorders within the immediate family, which could be transmitted.
  • Mothers having twins, triplets or other multiple births in one pregnancy will also be excluded.
  • Mothers experiencing high-risk pregnancies will also be excluded, so that the delivering doctor (obstetricians) can focus on the pregnancy at hand.
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17. When should I notify SCBB about donating my baby’s umbilical cord blood?
It is recommended to contact the public cord blood bank after the 32nd week of gestation and before the mother goes into labour.
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18. Can I notify SCBB before my 32nd week of gestation?
SCBB welcomes and appreciate all potential donors who express interest to donate their umbilical cord blood. However, the Consent Process i.e. signing of the Informed Consent Form and completion of the Maternal Risk Questionnaire; will only be done after 32nd week of gestation. This is when the pregnancy has stabilised and all scans and amniotic tests (if applicable) are completed. This allows both the mother and father to prepare for the birth of the baby and consider options of cord blood banking. This would also allow SCBB to fully ascertain if the donation of umbilical cord blood would be safe for both mother and baby.
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19. I wish to donate my baby’s cord blood but do not wish to have my blood taken?
The mother’s blood has to be evaluated and tested for infectious diseases during the delivery period. There are some infectious diseases, i.e. Hepatitis that stays dormant in the blood and can be come active at a later time. We have to ensure that all donated cord blood units are medically safe and clear of all infectious diseases for the immune-compromised patient.
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20. Why is the mother’s blood collected? How much is collected?
SCBB collects about 30mls of blood (about three soup spoons) from the mother when she is the Labour Ward / Delivery Suite. This will be evaluated for infectious diseases to ensure that the blood is safe for the immune-compromised patient.
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21. What do I do if I want to donate my baby’s cord blood to SCBB?
You can talk to your gynaecologist/obstetrician about your intention. He or she will alert SCBB, who will arrange for a donor coordinator to contact you. Alternatively, you can call SCBB’s donor recruitment coordinators at 6394-5011 or email donate@scbb.com.sg.
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22. What are the procedures and processes undertaken to facilitate the donation?
The following are the procedures and processes which need to be undertaken to ensure that cord blood collected meets stringent quality standards for transplants.

a. Pre-screening evaluation of eligibility
A pre-screening evaluation of the eligibility to donate will be conducted during a face-to-face meeting or telephone interview. Questions to ensure that the mother and infant donor meets SCBB’s established criteria for donation, including the birth parents and family medical history, will be asked. This will help to ascertain donor suitability before proceeding to the next stage of donation.

b. Informed consent
The next stage involves taking informed consent from the mother. SCBB’s donor coordinators will arrange for a counselling session for the mother to understand the implications and process of donation. The mother would need to complete and sign the Volunteer and Informed Consent Form and the Maternal Risk Questionnaire.

c. Affirmation of consent
The mother, who signed the informed consent in the previous stage, would need to reaffirm her consent for the collection of the umbilical cord blood, when she has been admitted and awaiting delivery in the delivery suite.

d. Collection of maternal sample
The next stage involves the collection of blood sample from the mother before delivery takes place. Approximately 30mls, about three soupspoons, will be collected and used for evaluation of infectious diseases. This procedure is necessary to ensure that all cord blood units collected are free of all infectious diseases and safe for transplant.

e. Collection of umbilical cord blood
The next stage involves the collection of the umbilical cord blood; which is done after the delivery has been completed and when the delivering doctor has ensured the well-being and safety of both mother and baby. The collected units will then be transported to SCBB for processing.
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23. What is the Consent Process?
The Consent Process is when the potential donor is required to go through a counselling process to understand the implications and process of donation. The following forms are required to be signed and completed.
  • The Volunteer Information and Informed Consent Form
  • The Maternal Risk Questionnaire
These forms MUST be completed before going into the delivering hospital’s Labour Ward / Delivery Suite.
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24. Can I donate if I am unable to complete the Maternal Risk Questionnaire?
The completion of Maternal Risk Questionnaire is required to determine the suitability of the donor and to ensure the safety of the patient during the transplant process. If the Maternal Risk Questionnaire is not completed, the cord blood unit will not be collected.
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25. Is cord blood donation confidential?
Any identifying information is never exchanged between a cord blood donor and cord blood recipient. The identity of cord blood donor is kept confidential at SCBB.
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26. Will any of my information be released?
SCBB has a strict confidentiality clause. All information will only be released directly to the respective donor upon request via telephone, email or in person unless authorisation is given by the donor in writing.
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27. What should I do if I decide to donate my cord blood after delivery?
When you decide to donate your baby’s cord blood, you will need to contact the SCBB after 32nd weeks to go through the Consent Process. You would also need to speak with your delivering doctor on the collection of cord blood. The donation of cord blood should be decided before labour and not after delivery.
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28. Can cord blood be collected during a Caesarean section?
Yes, if you are having a Caesarean section, you may wish to speak with your delivering doctor on your intention to donate your cord blood.
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29. Will the cord blood be collected if there are any complications during the delivery process?
If there are any complications during the delivery process, the cord blood will not be collected. The safety and well being of both mother and baby are of primary importance.
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30. Are there any costs to donate my baby’s cord blood to SCBB?
The cord blood donation to SCBB is free. SCBB raises its own funds to collect, process, store and distribute the donated CBU. There are no fees paid to the staff and doctors involved in the cord blood collection process; neither are they financially rewarded by the SCBB. However, the rights to the donated CBU will be relinquished by the donor to SCBB, upon collection of the CBU at delivery. The donated unit however is made available to anyone who requires it for treatment, and not kept specifically for the donor’s and/or the family’s personal use.
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31. Can I store half of my baby’s umbilical cord blood in a public bank and the other half in a private bank?
The number of stem cells harvested from umbilical blood is limited. The splitting of precious cord blood will result in insufficient stem cells to meet the international public cord blood banking requirements.
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32. Can I choose not to participate in the research should my donated cord blood unit not be stored?
It is optional to participate in approved ethical research in the Volunteer Information and Informed Consent form. If you have indicated that you do not wish to participate in research, it will be discarded.
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What Happens after Donation

33. What happens to the donated umbilical cord blood?
After the umbilical cord blood has been collected, it will be evaluated for volume, cell count, viability (i.e. 90% of counted cells should be ‘alive’), clots, and infectious and genetic diseases. These will ensure only samples of the highest quality are banked and made available to patients in need of cord blood stem cells for medical transplant procedures. Suitable samples will then be prepared for storage at -180, in cryogenic tanks, until they are required for transplantation.
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34. Will I be informed if my baby’s cord blood is released for transplant?
Donors will not be informed of the release of the cord blood unit as SCBB respects and protects the confidentiality of both donors and recipients.
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35. Can I transfer a stored umbilical cord blood bank from a private bank to the public bank?
The transfer of stored cryopreserved cord blood units from the private cord blood banks to the public cord blood bank is not possible. The cord blood banking standards differs for public and personal/family usage.

The supplies used for public cord blood banks require to be qualified and FDA approved. The maternal samples and cord blood samples are also required for a detailed panel of infectious disease testing. The maternal samples for these tests have to be collected within seven days of delivery.
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About the SCBB

36. What is SCBB’s mission?
SCBB’s mission is to provide placental cord blood units of high safety and quality, through the practice of internationally accredited techniques of collection, processing, banking and disposition, in order to support cord blood transportation and related research in Singapore and around the world.
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37. Why is there a need for a public cord blood bank?
A public cord blood bank such as the SCBB will help to increase the number of cord blood units available for unrelated blood stem cell transplant patients; hence increasing treatment options.

While there are cord blood banks in the region, they are only for domestic use and most do not have the multi-racial ethnic profile that is present in Singapore. Thus, it would be difficult for a Singaporean to find a match in these banks. Each year, about 60% of patients in Singapore are not able to find a suitable stem cell match from bone marrow donors and other public cord blood banks. Likewise, about 65 to 80 per cent of Asians worldwide are also unable to find a suitable match.
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38. Is SCBB affiliated to any other registries or international cord blood banks?
SCBB is an affiliate member of National Marrow Donor Programme (NMDP) the largest stem cell registry around the world and is also registered with the United States of America (USA) Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The NMDP is the national registry for bone marrow and umbilical cord blood units in America. Any accredited and licensed transplant physician and/or transplant centre searching through the NMDP for a life-saving cord blood unit, will also be searching SCBB for a matching unit.
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39. Are the hospitals, delivery suite staff and doctors paid for the collection of cord blood unit?
No. All participating hospitals, their staff and doctors involved in the collection process for SCBB are not rewarded monetarily by SCBB.
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Access to Units stored at SCBB

40. Who can use the donated umbilical cord blood?
The umbilical cord blood units stored with the SCBB will be made available to any Singaporean or overseas patients who require a life-saving stem cell unit for treatment, as assessed by their transplant physicians.
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41. Do I have priority if I donate my cord blood after delivery?
SCBB manages both donors and non-donors in the same manner. We appreciate every donation received and every search for a life-saving cord blood unit is a priority for us. If a donor’s cord blood unit meets the criteria for banking, and is still in storage at that time, the cord blood unit would be available for the patient who will benefit most from it; this could be the donor or someone else. Although the donor would have the first priority, in an unlikely simultaneous need, it would be up to the Transplant Physician to determine if it is deemed wise to use the donor’s own cord blood unit in this instance. Data have shown most unlikely that the donor should ever need his own cord blood unit as most transplant physicians may not feel that the patient’s own cord blood unit is the best choice. This is because it may already carry the genetic abnormality that led to the blood or immune system failure or cancer in the first place.
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42. Are the cord blood units stored at SCBB available for overseas transplants?
SCBB is able to facilitate transplants overseas. Its units are searchable by transplant physicians worldwide in view of its membership with the NMDP (National Marrow Donor Program®). The membership connects SCBB to an international network of other registries and transplant centres.
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43. What happens if my child or family member needs the umbilical cord blood for transplant? Can I have access to the unit which was donated?
Public cord blood banks, such as the SCBB, do not reserve any cord blood units for the specific family’s usage. However, if the family requires the unit and it is still available in the bank, we will work with your Transplant Physician on the release of the unit, if it has been found to be suitable. If the cord blood unit has already been released for transplantation, we will also work with your Transplant Physician on finding another suitable unit.

However, statistics show that the donor’s own unit may not be the best sample for transplantation. Most Transplant Physicians may not feel that the patient’s own cord blood unit is the best choice. This is because it may already carry the genetic abnormality that led to the blood or immune system failure or cancer in the first place.
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44. What is the chance of the donor’s parents matching the donor’s own cord blood unit?
Chances that the donor’s parents will match the donor’s cord blood unit is extremely low. Each child inherits half of their genetic material from each parent. To facilitate a successful cord blood transplant, about 67% match between donor and recipient is required.
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45. What if my child needs the donated cord blood unit?
We do not reserve any cord blood unit for the child or a specific family’s usage. If the donated cord blood unit meets the criteria for banking, and is still in SCBB at that time, the unit would be made available for the patient who would benefit most from it; this could be the donor or another recipient. Research has shown that there is an extremely low probability that the donor should ever need or benefit from his/her own cord blood unit. Transplant Physicians may not feel that the patient’s own cord blood unit is the best choice as it may already carry the genetic abnormality that led to the blood disorder or immune system failure. The donated cord blood unit, would have to be removed from the public cord blood inventory, as it would have at that point, failed the medical history, and would not be suitable for public use.

The CBU will only be released based on the following:-
  • CBU met SCBB’s stringent banking criteria, and was banked
  • CBU available in SCBB at the time of request
  • CBU is to be used and/or released to the donor upon advice of the Transplant Physician.
If the three criteria above are met, the CBU will be released to the donor, through the Transplant Centre, upon advice of the Transplant Physician provided he/she feels that it is the unit most beneficial to the donor.
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46. Can families send in a request to SCBB to search their registry for a match?
SCBB conducts searches for licensed and accredited Transplant Centres only. All search requests through these licensed Transplant Centres requires specific request forms to be completed. If you require a search for a life-saving cord blood unit, you may wish to speak with your oncologist and/or haematologist.
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47. Have there been any searches for a cord blood unit?
There are constant searches for SCBB’s CBUs both locally and internationally. There is an average of 40 cord blood searches through SCBB every month.
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48. How much must I pay for the cord blood if there’s a search?
Searches conducted through the SCBB’s Cord Blood Registry are not charged a fee.
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49. If the mother has donated cord blood and it was successfully stored in SCBB, will a fee be imposed if the cord blood is needed for a transplant to help the baby or baby's sibling?
There will not be any fee imposed if the infant donor or any of the sibling requires the donated unit, provided the request is made by the transplant physician.
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50. If any patient wants a cord blood unit from your registry and has not donated or their donated cord blood unit is not available, how much does it cost to procure a unit?
For donors, regardless of whether their donated cord blood unit is available or not, SCBB will work with the Transplant Centre to find a suitable match from its public inventory, without any charge.

For non-donor patients, the cost of a unit ranges between S$6,800 and S$28,500 for the first unit (based on cell dosage required) and flat rate of S$3,500 for the second unit (if needed) for the same patient. This cost recovery practice allows SCBB to sustain its operations so that it can continue to save lives. Patients with financial difficulties have been able to seek support with the help of their hospital's Medical Social Worker.
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51. How are cord blood units matched?
All cord blood units are tested for Human Leukocyte antigen (HLA) before banking. The results of this HLA testing go into a central register so that when anyone needs a cord blood unit, they can search the register, compare it with that of the transplant patient, and see, if there is a match. It is too late to start testing for a match only when a patient needs it. That is why it is important to make sure that HLA typing results are all on a public cord blood bank register.
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52. How does a patient receive a cord blood transplant?
After a patient undergoes chemotherapy and/or radiation treatment to destroy their diseased marrow, the healthy cord blood stem cells are given directly into the patient’s bloodstream, akin to a blood transfusion. These cord blood stem cells will then travel to the bone marrow where they begin to function and multiply. A successful transplant occurs when the new cells are engrafted (i.e. grow and established in the patient’s body).
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